Operation Crossroads was a series of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States in the summer of 1946. The series consisted of two detonations, each with a yield of 23 kilotons: Able detonated at an altitude of 520 feet (158 m) on 1 July 1946; Baker detonated 90 feet (27 m) underwater on 25 July 1946. A third planned burst, Charlie, was canceled. The Crossroads tests were the fourth and fifth nuclear explosions done by the USA (following the Trinity test and the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki). They were the first nuclear tests held in the Marshall Islands, and the first to be publicly announced beforehand.
A series of three tests was recommended to study the effects of nuclear weapons on ships, equipment, and material. Test site requirements were specified:
* A protected anchorage at least six miles wide
* A site which was uninhabited, or nearly so
* A l
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