In Pakistan and the former princely state of (Jammu and) Kashmir (disputed with India), militants opposing Indian rule are often known as mujahideen.
In 1947, the armed Mujahideen (Razakars), mostly Pashtun supported by the Pakistani Army, tried to force the annexation of Kashmir by Pakistan, as part of the population desired. Pakistan claimed the fighters were independent mujahideen helping a local insurgency, while India claimed that the invaders were Pakistani irregulars supported by the Pakistani Army.
The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh called upon help from India and the then Indian Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru airlifted Indian troops to the region and tried to drive off the insurgents.
The Kashmiri and Pakistani Mujahideen since then, with support from Pakistan's ISI and Army (see Operation Gibraltar), have been waging an armed campaign in Jammu and Kashmir. This resulted in India moving over half a million troops into Kashmir to suppress the insurgency and the ensuing violence has claimed more than 80,000 lives so far.
Several different militant groups have since taken root in Indian Kashmir. Most noticeable of these groups are Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), Al-Umar Mujahideen (AuM) and Harkat ul-Mujahideen (HuM). A 1996 report by Human Rights Watch estimated the number of active militant extremists at 3,200.
Mujahideen in Waziristan
Main article: 2004-2006 Waziristan conflict
Waziristan's new landmarks speak eloquently of the intensity of the conflict that still rages between Taliban and al-Qaeda militants and the Pakistani security forces.
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