LETTER TO NEGUS, KING OF ETHIOPIA
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
From Muhammad (peace be upon him) Prophet of Allah to Negus King of Ethiopia.
I praise Allah, except Whom there is none to be worshiped, who is the Ruler of the world. He is innocent and pure free from all blemishes, defects, flaws, or shortcomings). He gives refuge and sustains all.
I do admit that Isa (Jesus) (A.S.) son of Mariam (Mary), was the soul from Allah and His word (Order), he was infused to Mariam, who was clean and proof against evil. And Isa(A.S.) was born of Mariam. Allah created him from His soul and breath in the same manner as He created Adam(A.S.) with His own hand. I invite you towards Allah the One who has no associate. Believe in Him and join me in obedience to Him. Follow me and accept my prophethood because I am the Messenger of Allah. I have wished - you well in conveying the message of Allah in all sincerity. It is up you to accept my sympathetic advice. Extend the same invitation to your subjects. I am sending my cousin Jaffar (may Allah be pleased with him) with the other Muslims. When they reach you, treat them hospitably, by setting aside the vanity and pride of a ruler.
Peace be on him, who followed the right path.
Note: As mentioned earlier, after the Holy Prophet began to preach Islam, the Quraish became the bitterest enemies of Islam. In the beginning they taunted, teased and maltreated the Muslims. But by and by their opposition took the shape of tyranny. Their treatment of the Muslims, particularly of the poorer ones was so brutal, that they felt extremely unsafe in Makkah and feared annihilation at the hands of the Quraish. At that stage, (6th year before Hijri i.e. 614 A.D.) the Holy Prophet (pbuh) allowed the Muslims to temporarily migrate to Ethiopia, as he expected a good treatment by the King of Ethiopia. The Muslims began to migrate to the neighboring country of Ethiopia. This continued till the famous Migration of the Holy Prophet, after which the migrants began to return to Medinah The last caravan returned from Ethiopia in 7th Hijra - about 629 A.D. when the second Caravan went to Ethiopia, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) addressed a letter to the King of Ethiopia.
The Quraish could not tolerate that the Muslims should live in peace even in Ethiopia. They sent a delegation to Negus and pointed out to him that the Muslims had a strange faith which was altogether new and requested that the Muslims should be sent back. The King concluded from the Muslims about their beliefs. On that occasion Jaffar (may Allah be pleased with him) made a very impressive speech, saying.
"They were an extremely ignorant and pagan nation who worshiped self-made idols. Debauchery, cruelty and eating the dead was their way of life, but Allah sent a Prophet (pbuh) who changed their lives altogether. He admonished them to worship Allah only and to regard Him as their Master. He preached to them always to be truthful; and not to misappropriate a trust, treat neighbors kindly, avoid bloodshed and all that Allah has prohibited. Worship Allah, the One observe fasts and pay Zakat. This was the crime, for which their countrymen forced them to leave their hearths and homes and they had to take refuge in Ethiopia."
The King of Ethiopia was highly moved by the speech and clearly announced that he would not allow such pious people to be tyrannized.
The Muslims, thereafter, always had a deep regard for Ethiopia and never did they think of attacking that country. They conquered big countries like Iran, but never touched the neighboring Ethiopia.
SECOND LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA
In the name Of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
From Muhammad (pbuh) the Prophet of Allah to Negus, King of Ethiopia.
Peace be on him who follows the guidance. I praise Allah Who alone is to be worshiped. He is the Master of the entire universe. He is Sublime. Only He is the haven of peace and security. I testify that Isa (Jesus)son of Mariam (Mary) is the spirit of Allah and His word, which He communed to Mariam (Mary) the pious and thus she became the mother of Allah's Prophet Isa(A.S.).Thus Allah created him from His spirit and infused it into Mariam just as He made Adam (A.S.) with His powerful hand.
Now I invite you to accept the obedience, sympathy, and love of Allah Who is One and Who is without an associate. You should follow me and should believe in the message of Allah which I have brought.
I call you and your army towards Allah Who is worthy of all respect and esteem. I have thus discharged my duty of conveying His message and advice. You should accept it, May peace be on the followers of the guidance.
Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad
Note: As Negus continued to listen to the holy message, he was being influenced by it. As soon as the holy text was over, he kissed the letter with extreme fondness and placed it over his head. He sent the following reply:
To Muhammad, Prophet of Allah. May peace be on him.
From As'hama. the Negus.
May peace be on you 0 Prophet of Allah! May blessings and favors of Allah be on you. Allah, except Whom there is none worthy of worship, Who has shown me the way of Islam and has guided me.
O Prophet of Allah ! I had the honor of seeing your esteemed letter. Whatever you have written about Isa Jesus (A.S.) I swear by the Allah, Lord of earth and Heaven, that Isa (A.S.) is nothing more than that. I have well understood all these things which you have conveyed to me. Your cousin and his companions are my close companions.
I bear evidence that you are a true Prophet of Allah. I have taken bai'at (oath of allegiance to Allah and His Prophet) at the hand of your cousin, for the sake of Allah and have become a slave of Islam. O Allah's Prophet! I send my son Arha to you. If you will so order, I will present myself to you. May peace and blessings of Allah be on you.
THIRD LETTER TO THE KING OF ETHIOPIA
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful
May peace be on you. You treated us nicely. We have complete trust in you. The thing, we had hoped from you, has been realized and are safe and sound from the thing, we had feared. There is no capability (to do a thing) except from Allah.
Seal: Allah's Prophet Muhammad
Note: The main object in sending the letter was to call back the refugees to Medinah. The Negus is stated have kept the holy letters in an ivory casket and said that as long as the holy letters were there, the people of Ethiopia should be safe and secure.
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