The Three Non-Arab Islamic Empires (Iran, Turkey and Pakistan)

With the collapse of the Mongol administration of the Islamic lands in the 14th and 15th centuries, a trio of new empires began forming across Asia: the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the Safavid Empire in Persia (modern Iran), and the Mughal Empire in (modern) Pakistan. These three empires were the result of centuries of Islamic state building and expansion, and at their height, they covered nearly the entire Islamic world. The only Islamic regions left outside their domain were West Africa and Southeast Asia. These three empires were also significant because they provided the bridge between the medieval and modern periods of Islamic history.

The Ottoman Empire, which formed in the early 14th century, was the first of the three Great Islamic Empires. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak by 1600, after which time it fell into a gradual decline, as a result of both internal disorganisation and pressure from its external foes in Europe and Asia. Nevertheless, the Ottoman Empire survived through the First World War, and it was disbanded only in 1918. Out of the core of the Empire, in Asia Minor, came the present-day country of Turkey.

The Safavid Empire, which was founded as a political dynasty in 1501, was the second Great Islamic Empire to form. It originated as a religious sect, and it acquired the military and political traits of an empire only after 1501. The Safavid Empire also differed from the Ottoman and Mughal Empires because it was an officially Shi'ite empire, and religious differences led to much antagonism between the Safavids and its Sunni neighbours. The Safavid Empire was the shortest-lived of the three, forming in 1501 and suffering its final collapse at the hands of the invading Afghans in 1722. It forever influenced Persian nationalism, however, and out of the remnants of the Safavid Empire grew the present-day country of Iran.

The Mughal Empire in modern Pakistan, which formed in 1526, was the third Great Islamic Empire to form, and it struggled for several years after that to consolidate its territory. It benefited from a succession of strong rulers throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, many of whom were able to ensure the Empire's survival by appeasing the majority Hindu population of the Indian subcontinent. Like the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, however, the Mughal Empire's power eventually declined, and it was absorbed by the expansion of the British Empire in India in the mid-19th century.

In today's time, Turkey is leading these three in terms of economic strength and has it's influences in South Eastern Europe and the Arab world. Turkey's influence also includes it's soap operas, which are very popular in the Arab world and parts of Europe.

Pakistan is leading the trio in terms of power of military, with it's nuclear weapon and manpower. Pakistan has huge influences in the Arab world, especially in earlier times when the Arab countries began gaining independence from the British and French. One example of this, economic wise, is the United Arab Emirate's Airlines, which wouldn't be where it is if Pakistan didn't boost start it. Another example is the training of the Arab armies, which Pakistan kept from it's British successors. Pakistan's nuclear weapons have reach from south western China, all of India, and circles the Arab world, Turkey and South Eastern Europe.

Iran leads the three in natural resources and has significant scientific accomplishments and has a good/decent military. Unlike Pakistan and Turkey though, Iran is hated by the Arabs due to it's religion.