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2 Graphic: Massacre of Poles in western Ukraine, 1943
As the Red Army started to force the Wehrmacht back out of occupied territories in eastern Europe, long-simmering ethnic hostilities erupted among the native populations. In 1943, in the formerly Polish and now Ukrainian province of Volhynia, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army attempted to form its own state. Their leader Mykola Lebed gave orders to commit ethnic cleansing against the Poles in the area. Almost 50,000 Poles were murdered, and thousands more expelled.