Adnan 1 & 2 - Iraq's Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS)

An AWACS is an airborne military surveillance system designed to detect aircraft, ships and vehicles from a long range.
In 1987 the Iraqi Ministry of Defence began developing its Airborne Warning and Control System in what was thought to be preparation for the invasion of Kuwait. These aircraft were designed and built in the SAAD 23 complex, Iraq's then new aerospace hub. A Russian Ilyushin-76MD transport aircraft was used as a skeleton for the design.....

....and a French TIGER low altitude ground radar system was used as a framework for the Iraqi radar to be installed in the plane. The radar was completed in 1988 and named Baghdad-1. The initial design for the aircraft was going to have the radar placed in a fibre glass shell in the rear of the plane.This allowed it a range of detection of 350km over a 180 degrees.

This design was abandoned due to the inferior specifications in favour of the radar placed inside a dome that was to be on top of the plane.

This 2nd design was completed in 1989, however, the prototype failed its first flight test. The plane was further modified and the third modification was successful in testing. The final aircraft design flew successfully in 1989 and was named Adnan-1 after Adnan Khairallah Talfah, Saddam's brother in law and Iraq's minister of defence, who had died that year under mysterious circumstances, thought to be assassinated by Saddam's son Uday.

The Adnan-1 could detect objects 350km away with an accuracy of 80%.

The aircraft made its first public appearance in a parade in 1990 celebrating the 69th anniversary of the formation of the Iraqi armed forces (video below - it can be seen from 0:32secs).

Work to update Adnan-1 began instantly with the first prototype of Adnan-2 being completed in 1990. Adnan-2 had an updated version of the TIGER-G radar. It had the ability to detect objects as small as 2m squared from 450km away. Only one Adnan-2 was produced. It made it's first appearance on Iraqi TV one week prior to the invasion of Kuwait.

It served alongside Adnan-1 in the invasion of kuwait. The Adnan-2 was destroyed in bombing of Takadom Airbase in Habbaniyah Iraq on the 17th of January 1991, during the first gulf war.

To protect the Iraqi assets from the bombing of the coalition during the first gulf war Iraq had stowed many of its aircraft in Iran under the understanding that they would be returned after the war. In total 140 Iraqi aircraft including two adnan-1s where sent to Iran. After the end of the first gulf war the Iranians refused to return the aircrafts. Instead the Iranians incorporated them into their airforce as reparations for the Iran-Iraq war. One Adnan-1 was used by the Iranians as a transporter aircraft whilst the second Adnan-1 was used as an AWACS, both were renamed and painted with the Iranian flag.

In 2009, in an Iranian military parade marking the Iran-Iraq war the Adnan-1 AWACS aircraft crashed and was destroyed. The event was captured on video.

The one remaining Adnan-1 is still in service in Iran.


By: IraqiPride (2172.60)

Tags: Iran, Iraq, Adnan-1, Adnan-2, aerospace, fighter jets, iran-iraq war, saddam, Tiger, Radar, war, crime, kuwait, invasion, first gulf war, gulf, saad 23, base, iraqi army history, iraqi army, iraqi fighetr jets, iraqi research, technology, AWACS, Airborne,

Location: Iraq