w4gon_burn3r's Violent 'Murcan history 101: Zionist Jews and Order #11 [8 minute documentary from public tv]



General Order No. 11 was the title of an order issued by Major-General https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant on December 17, 1862, during the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War. It ordered the expulsion of all https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew in his military district, comprising areas of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi, and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky. The order was issued as part of a Union campaign against a https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_market in Southern cotton, which Grant thought was being run "mostly by Jews and other unprincipled traders."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2
In the war-zone, the United States licensed traders through the United
States Army, which created a market for unlicensed ones. Union military
commanders in the South were responsible for administering the trade
licenses and trying to control the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_market in Southern https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton, as well as for conducting the war. Grant issued the order in an effort to reduce corruption.
Following protests from Jewish community leaders and an outcry by members of Congress and the press, at President https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln's insistence, the General Order was revoked weeks later on January 17, 1863. During his campaign for the presidency in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_ele,
Grant claimed that he had issued the order without prejudice against
Jews, but simply as a way to address a problem that certain Jews had
caused

During the war, the extensive cotton trade continued between the North and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_of_America.
Northern textile mills in New York and New England were dependent on
Southern cotton, while Southern plantation owners depended on the trade
with the North for their economic survival. The U.S. Government
permitted limited trade, licensed by the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_th and the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army. Corruption flourished as unlicensed traders bribed Army officers to allow them to buy Southern cotton without a permit.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-3
Jewish traders were among those involved in the cotton trade; some
merchants had been active in the cotton business for generations in the
South; others were more recent immigrants to the North.[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed]
As part of his command, Major General Ulysses S. Grant was
responsible for issuing trade licenses in the Department of Tennessee,
an administrative district of the Union Army that comprised the portions
of Kentucky and Tennessee west of the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee_River, and Union-controlled areas of northern Mississippi. He was deeply engaged in prosecuting the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicksburg_Campaign the heavily defended Confederate-held city of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicksburg,_Mississippi and was committed to succeed. During this period, he tried several approaches to Vicksburg.
Grant resented having to deal with the distraction of the cotton
trade. He perceived it as having endemic corruption, as the lucrative
trade resulted in a system where "every colonel, captain or
quartermaster ... [was] in a secret partnership with some operator in
cotton."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2 He issued a number of directives aimed at black marketeers.
On November 9, 1862, Grant sent an order to Major-General https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_A._Hurlbut: "Refuse all permits to come south of Jackson for the present. The https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israelites especially should be kept out."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2 The following day he instructed General https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Dana_Webster:
"Give orders to all the conductors on the [rail]road that no Jews are
to be permitted to travel on the railroad southward from any point. They
may go north and be encouraged in it; but they are such an intolerable
nuisance that the department must be purged of them."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2 In a letter to General https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tecumseh_Sherman, Grant wrote that his policy was occasioned "in consequence of the total disregard and evasion of orders by Jews."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2
Grant tightened restrictions to try to reduce the illegal trade. On
December 8, 1862, he issued General Order No. 2, mandating that
"cotton-speculators, Jews and other Vagrants having not honest means of
support, except trading upon the miseries of their Country ... will
leave in twenty-four hours or they will be sent to duty in the
trenches."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2 Nine days later, on December 17, 1862, he issued General Order No. 11 to strengthen his earlier prohibition.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-feldberg-4
General https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_H._Wilson later suggested that the order was related to Grant's difficulties with his own father, Jesse Grant. He recounted,



He [Jesse Grant] was close and greedy. He came down into Tennessee
with a Jew trader that he wanted his son to help, and with whom he was
going to share the profits. Grant refused to issue a permit and sent the
Jew flying, prohibiting Jews from entering the line.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-McFeely-7

Wilson felt that Grant could not deal with the "lot of relatives who
were always trying to use him" and perhaps attacked those he saw as
their counterpart—opportunistic traders who were Jewish.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-McFeely-7 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertram_Korn
in his 1951 history suggested that the order was part of a pattern by
Grant. "This was not the first discriminatory order [Grant] had signed
[...] he was firmly convinced of the Jews' guilt and was eager to use
any means of ridding himself of them."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2
Text of Grant's Order
General Order No. 11 decreed as follows:



[list=1][*]The Jews, as a class violating every regulation of trade established
by the Treasury Department and also department orders, are hereby
expelled from the Department [of the Tennessee] within twenty-four hours
from the receipt of this order.[/*]Post commanders will see to it that all of this class of people be
furnished passes and required to leave, and any one returning after such
notification will be arrested and held in confinement until an
opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished
with permit from headquarters.[*]No passes will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application of trade permits.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-8[/*][/list]

In a letter of the same date sent to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Wolcott, the assistant https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Secretary_of_War, Grant explained his reasoning:



Sir,


I have long since believed that in spite of all the vigilance that can be infused into Post Commanders, that the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_money_%28policy%29
regulations of the Treasury Dept. have been violated, and that mostly
by Jews and other unprincipled traders. So well satisfied of this have I
been at this that I instructed the Commdg Officer at Columbus
[Kentucky] to refuse all permits to Jews to come south, and frequently
have had them expelled from the Dept. [of the Tennessee]. But they come
in with their https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpet_bag
in spite of all that can be done to prevent it. The Jews seem to be a
privileged class that can travel any where. They will land at any wood
yard or landing on the river and make their way through the country. If
not permitted to buy Cotton themselves they will act as agents for
someone else who will be at a Military post, with a Treasury permit to
receive Cotton and pay for it in Treasury notes which the Jew will buy
up at an agreed rate, paying gold.
There is but one way that I know of to reach this case. That is for
Government to buy all the Cotton at a fixed rate and send it to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo,_Illinois, St Louis, or some other point to be sold. Then all traders, they are a curse to the Army, might be expelled.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-marcus-9

Reaction
The order went into immediate effect; Army officers ordered Jewish traders and their families in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holly_Springs,_Mississippi, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford,_Mississippi, and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paducah,_Kentucky
to leave the territory. Grant may not have intended such results; his
headquarters expressed no objection to the continued presence of Jewish https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutler, as opposed to cotton traders. But, the wording of the order addressed all Jews, regardless of occupation, and it was implemented accordingly.
A group of Jewish merchants from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paducah,_Kentucky, led by Cesar J. Kaskel, sent a telegram to President https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln in which they condemned the order as "the grossest violation of the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Constitution
and our rights as good citizens under it". The telegram noted it would
"place us . . . as outlaws before the world. We respectfully ask your
immediate attention to this enormous outrage on all law and humanity
...."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2 Throughout the Union, Jewish groups protested and sent telegrams to the government in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington,_D.C.
The issue attracted significant attention in Congress and from the press. The https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Party_%28United_Sta
condemned the order as part of what they saw as the US Government's
systematic violation of civil liberties; they introduced a motion of
censure against Grant in the Senate, attracting thirty votes in favor
against seven opposed.[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed] Some newspapers supported Grant's action; the https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Washington_Chroni;amp;action=edit&redlink=1 criticized Jews as "scavengers ... of commerce".https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-michael-10 Most, however, were strongly opposed, with the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Times denouncing the order as "humiliating" and a "revival of the spirit of the medieval ages."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2 Its editorial column called for the "utter reprobation" of Grant's order.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-michael-10
Kaskel led a delegation to Washington, D.C., arriving on January 3, 1863. In Washington, he conferred with Jewish https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republican_Party_%28United_Sta Adolphus Solomons and a https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cincinnati,_Ohio congressman, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_A._Gurley. After meeting with Gurley, he went directly to the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_House.
Lincoln received the delegation and studied Kaskel's copies of General
Order No. 11 and the specific order expelling Kaskel from Paducah. The
President told General-in-Chief https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Wager_Halleck to have Grant revoke General Order No. 11, which Halleck did in the following message:

A paper purporting to be General Orders, No. 11, issued by you December 17, has been presented here. By its terms, it expells [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sic] all Jews from your department. If such an order has been issued, it will be immediately revoked.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-marcus-9



One of Halleck's staff officers privately explained to Grant that the
problem lay with the excessive scope of the order: "Had the word
'pedlar' been inserted after Jew I do not suppose any exception would
have been taken to the order." According to Halleck, Lincoln had "no
objection to [his] expelling traitors and Jew peddlers, which I suppose,
was the object of your order; but as in terms proscribing an entire
religious class, some of whom are fighting in our ranks, the President
deemed it necessary to revoke it." The Republican politician https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elihu_B._Washburne
defended Grant in similar terms. Grant's subordinates expressed concern
about the order. One Jewish officer, Captain Philip Trounstine, of the
Ohio cavalry, stationed in Moscow, Tennessee resigned in protest and
Captain John C. Kelton, the assistant Adjutant-General of the Department
of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri, wrote to Grant to note his order included all Jews, rather than focusing on "certain obnoxious individuals," and noted that many Jews served in the Union Army.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-michael-10https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-11 Grant formally revoked it on January 17, 1863.
On January 6, Rabbi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Mayer_Wise of Cincinnati, leader of the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reform
movement, led a delegation that met with Lincoln to express gratitude
for his support. Lincoln said he was surprised that Grant had issued
such a command and said, "to condemn a class is, to say the least, to
wrong the good with the bad." Lincoln said he drew no distinction
between Jew and Gentile and would allow no American to be wronged
because of his religious affiliation.[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed]Post-war repercussions


After the Civil War, General Order No. 11 became an issue in the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_ele
in which Grant stood as the Republican candidate. The Democrats raised
the order as an issue, with the prominent Democrat and rabbi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Mayer_Wise
urging fellow Jews to vote against Grant because of his alleged
anti-semitism. Grant sought to distance himself from the order, saying
"I have no prejudice against sect or race, but want each individual to
be judged by his own merit."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%2
He repudiated the controversial order, asserting it had been drafted by
a subordinate and that he had signed it without reading, in the press
of warfare.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-feldberg-4 In September 1868, Grant wrote in reply to Isaac N. Morris, a correspondent:

I do not pretend to sustain the order. At the time of its
publication, I was incensed by a reprimand received from Washington for
permitting acts which Jews within my lines were engaged in ... The order
was issued and sent without any reflection and without thinking of the
Jews as a set or race to themselves, but simply as persons who had
successfully ... violated an order. ... I have no prejudice against sect
or race, but want each individual to be judged by his own merit.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-I.N.Morris-13https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-14

The episode did not cause much long-term damage to Grant's
relationship with the American Jewish community. He won the presidential
election, taking the majority of the Jewish vote.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-feldberg-4Grant attends synagogue dedicationIn his book on When General Grant Expelled the Jews (2012) historian https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Sarna
argues that as president Grant became one of the greatest friends of
Jews in American history. When he was president, he appointed more Jews
to office than any previous president. He condemned atrocities against
Jews in Europe, putting human rights on the American diplomatic agenda.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-15
In 1874, President Grant attended a dedication of the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adas_Israel_Congregation_%28Wa
in Washington with all the members of his Cabinet. This was the first
time an American President attended a synagogue service. Many historians
have taken his action as part of his continuing effort to reconcile
with the Jewish community.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29#cite_note-16https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Order_No._11_%281862%29