What is Gender equality?
It is the concept of the two genders/sexes (male and female) being
equal to each other.
In the modern world women's rights would not have been won without the struggles of countless women who have come to be known as 'The Suffragettes'.
Who are are The Suffragettes?
The Suffragette movement appeared in the late 19th century. The initial goals were women's suffrage (i.e the ability to vote in elections) and to have property rights. The movement developed like many social/political organisations; they protested, rioted and even used militant tactics.
Side note:-Islam (the religion) granted the right of property (i.e independent legal & financial status) to women at the time of it's revelation.
The Suffragettes acheived their goals and helped shape the modern world for justified rights and the rise of femenist topics.
Science and Gender Equality
Recent scientific research has found that minute differences between the male and female brains are the clue to the difference between the two sexes. While it's not completely clear how the structural differences in male and female brains affect their function, scientists theorize that the most likely impact is upon the way men and women process information.
Studies have elaborated the following differences in the brains of males and
(1) Total brain size: There is a considerable difference in the brain weights of men and women with the average brain weight in adult men being about 11-12% more than the average brain weight of women. Also due to the larger built, larger muscle mass, and larger size of men’s bodies, men's heads measure about 2% more than women's.
Average brain weights (BW)
AGE BW - Male (grams) BW - Female (grams)
-------- ----------------- -----------------
Newborn 380 360
1 year 970 940
2 years 1,120 1,040
3 years 1,270 1,090
10-12 years 1,440 1,260
19-21 years 1,450 1,310
56-60 years 1,370 1,250
81-85 years 1,310 1,170
(Data from Dekaban, A.S. and Sadowsky, D., Changes in brain weights during the span of human life: relation of brain weights to body heights and body weights, Ann. Neurology, 4:345-356, 1978)
(2) Cell number: The brain cells and brain tissue is 4% and 100 gms respectively more in men. This explains the reason why even though the net loss of neurons is the same, women are more prone to dementia (such as Alzheimer's disease) than men. This is because in males the additional 4% of nerve cells provides a functional reserve of neurons and hence prevents the functional losses that may occur.
(3) Cellular connections: This is the number of neurons present and studies show that men have more neurons in the cerebral cortex whereas women have a more developed neuropil(the space between cell bodies) which contains synapses, dendrites and axons. These neuropils render better communication among neurons.
(4) Corpus collosum: Research shows that a woman's brain contains a larger corpus
collosum, which signifies that women can transfer data between the right and left hemisphere faster than men, who tend to be more left brained.
(5) Language: It is shown that the areas of Broca and Wernicke (areas in the frontal and temporal lobes related to language) are larger in women, thus providing an understanding for women's superiority in language skills. This gives women a distinct advantage over men for whom language is most often just in the dominant hemisphere (usually the left side). Therefore if a woman has a stroke in the left front side of the brain, she may still retain some language from the
right front side. Whereas men who have the same left sided damage are less likely
(6) Inferior parietal lobule (IPL): It is the segment of the brain, which deals with the mathematical abilities. It is shown that the IPL is significantly larger in men than in women and the left side IPL is larger in men whereas in women the right side IPL is larger.
(7) Orbitofrontal to amygdale ratio (OAR): It is the ratio of the size of the orbitofrontal cortex (region involved in regulating emotions} to the size of the amygdala, (region involved in the production of emotional reactions). Studies have proven that women harbour a substantially larger orbitofrontal-to-amygdala ratio (OAR) than men. From these findings one can deduce that women might on average prove more capable of controlling their emotional reactions.
(8) Limbic size: The deep limbic system of females is larger than that of males. The advantages associated with this are that women are better able to express their feelings and are more in sync with their feelings than men. Another upside is that due to the deeper limbic system women are able to bond better with others. The disadvantage is that women are more prone to depression, especially during the onset of puberty, before menses, or after giving birth and at menopause.
The reason for these structural differences is mainly due to infant development. During the development of the embryo in the womb, circulating hormones like androgens cause the formation of a male brain while the absence of these hormones results in the female brain.
So does this structural and functional difference imply a superiority or
inferiority difference between men and women?
No, these anatomical differences are usually adapted to generalize attitudes when looking at large populations – there can always be exceptions.
So what can we deduce form these structural differences?
• The male brain is highly specialized, using specific parts of one hemisphere or the other to accomplish specific tasks. The female brain is more diffused and utilizes significant portions of both hemispheres for a variety of tasks.
• Men tend to approach communication with a task-oriented "let's fix the problem" state of mind, while Women tend to be more creative and aware of feelings in their communication style.
• women's larger deep limbic systems implies that they tend to be more in touch with their feelings and are better able to express them than men. Also, woemn have an increased ability to connect and bond with others.
• Men can focus their brains on particular tasks or activities for long periods of time without getting tired whereas women are capable of multi-tasking.
• Men are able to focus on narrow issues and block out unrelated information and distractions. Women generally see everyday things from a broader perspective or tend to se the "big-picture".
• Men are able to separate information, stimulus, emotions, relationships,
etc. into separate compartments in their brains, while women tend to link everything together.
• Men see individual issues with parts of their brain, while women use their entire brain (i.e. both hemispheres) to look at the holistic or multiple issues.
• In men, the dominant perceptual sense is vision, which is typically not the case with women. All of a woman's senses are, in some respects, more finely tuned than those of a man.
Even though the facts clearly bring out the structural differences in male and female brains it is not a basis of description of every man and every woman.
Every person is different and unique.
These subtle brain differences can help us gauge a better understanding and appreciation for the unique strengths and qualities we possess. The more men and women understand about these differences, the easier it is to understand each other.
Brain structure article by Dana Fenton, a native of Hamel, Ill., has been involved in the health insurance industry and writing fields for more than 15 years. As an experienced professional, she has worked for Wellpoint Inc./Blue Cross Blue Shield of Missouri, Maritz/Convergys Corp and SBC Advanced Solutions, as well as in the freelance writing field. Currently she is pursuing certification in Respiratory Therapy through St. Louis Community College, Forest Park Campus and plans to
continue her education to earn a BSN.
Blum, D. - "Sex on the Brain: The Biological Differences Between Men and
Women". Penguin, 1998
Bishop K.M. and Wahlsten, D. Sex differences in the human corpus callosum:
myth or reality? Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews vol 21 (5) 581 - 601,
Additional Sources for demonstrative purposes by Rayyaan
Physical Differences Between Men and Women
There are several obvious differences between men and women, including the following:
1. An average man is taller and heavier than an average woman.
2. Men have more bodily hair than women do, especially on the chest and extremities
3. Women are more sensitive to sound than men
Men are over 30% stronger than women, especially in the upper body.
Although many feminists cannot face this fact, females simply do not
have the strength or endurance necessary to be, for example, effective
5. On average, girls begin puberty changing approximately two years before boys.
Men have larger hearts and lungs, and their higher levels of
testosterone cause them to produce greater amounts of red blood cells
Differences in intake and delivery of oxygen translates into some
aspects of performance: when a man is jogging at about 50% of his
capacity, a woman will need to work at over 70% of her capacity to keep
up with him.
8. Female fertility decreases after age 35, ending with menopause, but men are capable of making children even when very old.
9. Men’s skin has more collagen and sebum, which makes it thicker and oilier than women’s skin
10. Women generally have a greater body fat percentage than men.
Men and women have different levels of certain hormones; for example,
men have a higher concentration of androgens such as testosterone, while
women have a higher concentration of estrogens.
12. An average
male brain has approximately 4% more cells and 100 grams more brain
tissue than an average female brain. This is not connected with
intelligence! Research points to no overall difference in intelligence
between males and females. However, both sexes have similar brain weight
to body weight ratios.
13. In men, the second digit is often
shorter than the fourth digit, while in females the second tends to be
longer than the fourth
14. Men have better distance vision and
depth perception, and usually better vision in lighted environments.
Women have better night vision, see better at the red end of the light
spectrum, and have better visual memory.
1. More men than women become infected with HIV.
2. More males are likely to be diagnosed with tuberculosis then females.
3. Women are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease.
4. Men are more likely to suffer from cancer.
5. Women are more likely to suffer from osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and blindness
1. An average man performs better on tests of spatial and
mathematical ability, while women perform better on tests of verbal
ability and memory.
2. Men’s IQ has greater variance, which means that there are more men than women in the very high and very low IQ groups.
There are some proven behavioral differences between men and women. and the most common are:
1. Men are more physically aggressive.
2. Men masturbate more.
3. Women are less likely to successfully commit suicide, but more likely to attempt it.
4. Men have more positive attitudes about sex then women do.
5. Men are more prone to taking risks.
6. Women express their emotions more readily and experience a greater intensity of emotion.
Differences in mental health:
Several mental illnesses are proven to be differently distributed between genders.
The most common include:
1. Depression –
Several researches have shown that this disease affects females twice
as often as it does males. Serotonin is a chemical required in the brainfor “happy mood maintenance”. The rate of synthesis and level of serotonin in the blood are significantly higher in men than in women. These differences may help explain why depression is more common in
women. Both depression and panic disorder rates, which are two disorders
with higher rates in women than men, may be tied to childhood
experiences of abuse.
- Although this disorder affects men and women equally, men typically experience symptoms earlier, with more intensity, and have poorer prognosis than women. Symptoms of schizophrenia in women more frequentlyinvolve depression and greater disorders in thought conceptualization, while men report more apathy, disorders of speech, disturbance in cognitive function, and social isolation.
3. Alzheimer’s disease
- Several studies have shown that women are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than men are. This disease is caused by the damage to the white brain matter. On the other hand,men with Alzheimer’s disease have a higher risk of mortality than women do.
4. Stress Disorders
- Anxiety disorders are chronic illnesses that occur more often in women than men. The risk of post-traumatic stress disorder following some traumatic experience is much higher in women than men. Women are also more likely to have been previously assaulted or to have sustained
injury by a relative or someone known to them.
In general, it has been proven that women are happier with their lives
than men are. Women also show greater concern about family and home life
issues, while men express more sympathies about political issues.
Employment: In most of countries, there are more wealthy or rich men
than there are women. There are much more unemployed females, as well.
Employed women earn 80% of the income of men. Women are less productive
then men – women in nonagricultural industries work 35.9 hours per week
versus 41.6 hours for men.
More men work in the following industries:
• computer and mathematical occupations
• engineering and architecture.
• chief executives
• police and patrol officers
• dentists and surgeons.
Women are far more likely than men to be
• social workers
• paralegals and legal assistants
• speech pathologists
• dental hygienists
• maids and housekeeping cleaners
• Childcare workers.
Women often complain of sexism in the workplace. This is tragic. However, it is very simple to comprehend when you realise that women get pregnant and will need time off. They claim this hampers their chance at building a career (who could honestly disagree?).
Should women should be more satisfied with trying to be a successful mother with a job rather than a successful worker with a child?
Sometimes women are also discriminated against due to the nature of jobs. However, the same applies to men. Men are also becoming victims of promotion after social & political pressure calls for more women to be seen working in 'managment'. This (obviously) is one of the falacies of femenism. People should be promoted based on their skills and not gender or out of pity.
Let's look at some small issues:
Women in the infantry?
Many nations do not allow women to serve in their infantry forces for a variety of reasons. A few nations do. Let's take a small peek.
Israel Permits Females to Join Infantry
Whilst the UK does not, and neither does the USA.
Men in Office Jobs?
Men are the new victims of sex discrimination at work, according to a ground-breaking new study suggesting that professions once regarded as male bastions are now biased towards women.
This article (pasted below) demonstrates results from a study which shows that men are losing out on relatively unskilled office jobs and skilled office jobs.
Male applicants were up to four times as likely as women to suffer differential treatment when seeking jobs in accountancy and computer programming, according to researchers who submitted hundreds of pairs of fake CVs to employers - offering identical qualifications and experience, but alternating male and female names.
The CVs sent by the fictional 'Emma' were less likely than those from her alter ego, 'Phillip', to trigger an invitation for interview when both applied for the same job in engineering, suggesting this career was still seen predominantly as 'man's work'.
But it was 'Phillip' who lost out not only in applications for secretarial jobs - traditionally stereotyped as 'female' - but also for jobs in accountancy and computer programming.
The results present a startling picture of the modern workplace, suggesting employers may now be employing a form of stealth 'affirmative action' and actively trying to recruit more women.They come just weeks before the government publishes the findings of its Women at Work Commission, which is expected to argue that the pay gap between men and women is partly down to the career choices that women make and their concentration in low-paid jobs.
Dr Peter Riach, co-author of the report with Dr Judith Rich, said: 'We were totally surprised by what we found.'
Men and Women are very different and the sole purpose of this article is to present this fact. Infact, it becomes very obvious that men and women are stereotypically not alike. We are the same species and due to the greatness of the creation we live in; in men women have perfect partners and in women the men can find perfect partners.
To finish: 2 Quotes which are alike and definitely hold truth.
God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him." (NIV, Genesis 2:18)
God said, "They are your garments, and you are their garment." Referring to women Qur'an 2:187 (Surat Al Baqara - The cow, referring to that which Moses asked his followers to sacrifice)
What do garments offer us? Warmth, comfort, protection, modesty :)
Have a nice day Leakers and remember.... Women are not like Men and Men are not like Women (usually anyway, lol)
P.S I apologise for the lack of sources in the psychology section. This article could be continued forever.
In: Science and Technology
Tags: gender, equality, inequality, sexism, femenism, macho, science, psychology, women, men, differences, attributes, jobs, work, suffragettes,
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