DHS Purchases 2,700 Light-Armored Tanks to Go With Their 1.6 Billion Bullet
Posted by Jim Hoft on
Sunday, March 3, 2013, 9:55 PM
This is getting a little creepy.
According to one estimate, since last year the Department of Homeland Security has stockpiled more than 1.6
billion bullets, mainly .40 caliber and 9mm.
DHS also purchased 2,700 Mine Resistant Armor Protected
The Department of Homeland Security
(through the U.S. Army Forces Command) recently retrofitted 2,717 of these
‘Mine Resistant Protected’ vehicles for service on the streets of the United
Although I’ve seen and read several
online blurbs about this vehicle of late, I decided to dig slightly deeper and
discover more about the vehicle itself.
The new DHS sanctioned ‘Street
Sweeper’ (my own slang due to the gun ports) is built by Navistar Defense
(NavistarDefense.com), a division within the Navistar organization. Under the
Navistar umbrella are several other companies including International Trucks,
IC Bus (they make school buses), Monaco RV (recreational vehicles), WorkHorse
(they make chassis), MaxxForce (diesel engines), and Navistar Financial (the
money arm of the company).
DHS even released a video on their
newly purchased MRAPs.
Via Pat Dollard:
Homeland Security Investigations El Paso SRT MRAP Armored Vehicle
Published on May 13, 2012
The MRAP featured in this video is was in
Albuquerque, New Mexico for Law Enforcement Day which was held at a local area
Target Store. This MRAP is stationed in El Paso, Texas at The Homeland Security
Investigations Office. MRAP is a Mine Resistant Armor Protected Vehicle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MRAP
Homeland Security Investigations has 26 Special Agent in Charge (SAC) principal
field offices throughout the United States. The SAC offices are responsible for
the administration and management of all investigative and enforcement
activities within the geographic boundaries of the office. The SACs develop,
coordinate, and implement enforcement strategies to ensure conformance with
national policies and procedures and to support national intelligence programs.
SACs coordinate law enforcement activities with the highest level of Federal,
state, and local governments, as well as intelligence organizations and
international law enforcement entities. In addition, SACs supervise all
administrative responsibilities assigned to the office and ensure a responsive
Internal Controls Program is developed.
To efficiently manage their designated geographic regions, SAC offices maintain
various subordinate field offices throughout their areas of responsibility,
which support the enforcement mission. These subordinate field offices, Deputy
Special Agents in Charge (DSAC), Assistant Special Agents in Charge (ASAC),
Resident Agents in Charge (RAC) and Resident Agents (RA), are responsible for
managing enforcement activities within the geographic boundaries of the office
the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
uses, see MRAP
An MRAP Cougar HE being tested in January 2007, with landmines being detonated around it.
Armored personnel carrier (wheeled)
United States Armed Forces
Protected (MRAP; pron.: /ˈɛmræp/ EM-rap) vehicles are a family of armored fighting vehicles used by the US armed forces, among others. The purpose of the design is
surviving improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and ambushes. The first developments in armored
vehicles designed specifically to counter the land mine threat took place during the 1972–1980 Rhodesian
Bush War and the
technology was subsequently matured in South Africa.
1 General information[/*]
3.1 MRAP Deployment[/*]
3.2 Parallel programs[/*]
4.1 Category I (MRAP-MRUV)[/*]
4.2 Category II (MRAP-JERRV)[/*]
4.3 Category III[/*]
5.1 Rollovers and electric shock[/*]
6 MRAP II[/*]
7 Plans to integrate developing
8 MRAP M-ATV[/*]
10 See also[/*]
12 External links[/*]
 General information
There is no common MRAP vehicle
design, as there are several vendors, each with its own vehicle. Originally
Brig. General Michael Brogan, and
now Brig. General Frank Kelley, Commander, United
States Marine Corps
Systems Command, is in charge of the Marine MRAP program. Mr. Kevin Fahey, U.S. Army Program
Executive Officer for
Command Support and Combat Service Support, manages the Army MRAP program. The Marine Corps had planned to replace all Humvees in combat zones with MRAP vehicles, although this appears to have changed. As armored vehicles are considered an
"urgent need" in Afghanistan, this program is primarily funded under
an "emergency war budget". On 8 May 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that the acquisition of MRAPs is the Department of Defense's highest priority, so for fiscal year 2007 $1.1 billion is earmarked for MRAP. Gates decided to ramp up MRAP orders
after the Marines reported in 2004 that no troops had died in more than 300 IED
attacks on Cougars  As of May 6, 2008 eight soldiers had been
reported killed in the thousands of MRAPs in Iraq, according to news service Knight Ridder.
In June 2008, USA Today reported that roadside bomb attacks and
fatalities were down almost 90% partially due to MRAPs. "They've taken
hits, many, many hits that would have killed soldiers and Marines in unarmored
Humvees", according to Adm. Michael Mullen, chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff. Maj.
General Rick Lynch, who commanded a division in Baghdad, told USA Today the 14-ton MRAPs have forced insurgents to build
bigger, more sophisticated bombs to knock out the vehicles. Those bombs take
more time and resources to build and set up, which gives U.S. forces a better
chance of catching the insurgents in the act and stopping them. The Taliban is also focusing their efforts away
from anti-material IEDs and more toward smaller anti-personnel bombs that target
soldiers on patrol.
This program is very similar to
the U.S. Army's Medium Mine Protected Vehicle program.
Writing on the
door of an MRAP reads "This truck saved my life as well as 5 others on 02
Apr 08 at 2300 L in Basrah, IZ."
MRAP vehicles usually have "V"-shaped hulls to deflect away any explosive forces
originating below the vehicle, thereby protecting the vehicle and its passenger
compartment. Typically
these explosions are from land mines, but they can also be IEDs. This design
dates to the 1970s when it was first introduced in specialised vehicles built
by and for the Rhodesian army, and further developed by South African manufacturers, starting in 1978 with the Buffel (Buffalo) armored
personnel carrier (APC). However, the
TSG/FPI Cougar (designed by a British-led U.S. team in 2004 for a USMC
requirement) became the
springboard from which the MRAP program was launched.
Multiple contracts have been
placed by the US for this type of vehicle in response to the situation in the Iraq War. By issuing contracts to several companies, the Marine Corps hopes to
accelerate the rate of production, to expedite the delivery of vehicles to
deployed forces. However, there are only two steel mills in the US, Oregon Steel Mills, Inc. and International
Steel Group, qualified to
produce armored steel for the Defense Department, which has
been in negotiations to ensure enough steel is available to keep pace with
production. The concept was to replace Humvee-type vehicles with a more robust, survivable vehicle when on patrol
"outside the wire".
Designs were submitted by the
Armor Holdings (acquired by BAE Systems on 31 July 2007)[/*]
Protection Inc (FPI)[/*]
General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS)[/*]
General Purpose Vehicles (GPV)[/*]
Navistar International Military
Textron Marine and Land Systems[/*]
Although early orders were placed
with many of the contenders (see below), as of 18 October 2007, only IMG, FPI,
and BAE remain in the competition for additional orders.
fielded in Iraq
 MRAP Deployment
The MRAP program was prompted by
U.S. deaths in Iraq. As recently as 2007, the U.S. Military has
ordered the production of about 10,000 MRAPs at a cost of over $500,000 each,
and planned to order more MRAPs.  Partial list of orders under the MRAP program:
On 30 January 2007, FPI received an
order for two Cougar H and two Cougar HE vehicles for testing and
evaluation by the USMC for the MRAP program.[/*]
On 14 February 2007, the Marine Corps Systems Command placed a $67.4 million delivery order for 65 Category I Cougar H
vehicles and 60 Category II Cougar HE vehicles, as well as a $55.4 million delivery
order 15 Category I BAE RG-33 vehicles, and 75 Category II BAE RG-33L
vehicles, built in York,
On 24 April 2007, the Marine Corps
Systems Command placed a $481.4 million order with Force Protection for
300 Category I Cougar H vehicles and 700 Category II Cougar HE vehicles.[/*]
On 31 May 2007, the Marine Corps
Systems Command ordered 1200 Category I International MaxxPros at a cost
of $623 million.[/*]
On 1 June 2007, FPI received an order
for 14 Category III Buffalo vehicles from the Marine Corps Systems
Command. The contract is worth an approximate $11.9 million and is
scheduled for completion by spring 2008.[/*]
On 19 June 2007, the Navy placed an order on behalf of the Marine Corps and
Army for 395 Category I, 60 Category II
Force Protection Cougars at a cost of $221 million, and for 16 Category II
International MaxxPro XLs for the sum of $8 million.[/*]
On 28 June 2007, amended July 16,
2007, BAE Systems received a $235.8 million order for 16 RG-33 Category I
patrol vehicles, 239 RG-33L Category II vehicles, 170 RG-33 Category I
variants for the United States Special Operations Command, out of their total allotment of 333
vehicles, and 16 RG-33L Category II Ambulance variants, which are the first vehicles in
the competition specifically listed for the ambulance role.[/*]
On 13 July 2007, Stewart & Stevenson (Armor Holdings) received an order for 1,154 Category I and 16
Category II MRAP vehicles from the Marine Corps Systems Command. The
vehicles are for delivery by February 2008 and the order is worth $518.5
On 20 July 2007, IMG received an
additional order for 755 I MaxxPro MRAP vehicles.[/*]
On 6 August 2007, General Dynamics
Land Systems Canada received an order for 600 MRAP Category II RG-31
vehicles. The contract is worth $338.7 million. Manufacturing will be done
by the Demmer Corporation of Lansing,
addition to BAE
OMC of Benoni, South
Africa. Deliveries will be completed by March 2008.[/*]
On 10 August 2007, the Marine Corps
Systems Command placed a USD $69.8m order with Force Protection for 25 Category
1 Cougar H vehicles and 100 Category II Cougar HE vehicles.[/*]
On 18 October 2007, the Pentagon
placed additional orders for one thousand Category I vehicles from IMG
(worth $509 million), 533 Category I and 247 Category II vehicles from
Force Protection (worth $377 million), and 399 standard Category II, 112
ambulance-configured Category II RG-33L vehicles (worth $278 million) from
BAE Systems. BAE also received a separate $44 million order for 89 RG33
Mod 5 (Category I) vehicles, for the U.S. Special Operations Command. GDLS
and Armor Holdings were informed that they will receive no further orders
in the MRAP program.[/*]
On 18 December 2007, the U.S.
military placed its final orders of year 2007. These went to Navistar for
1,500 Category I MaxxPros (worth $1.12 billion), BAE for 600 Category II
vehicles ($645 million), Armor Holdings (though BAE) for 668 Category II
vehicles (worth $458 ), and Force Protection for 178 Category I and 180
Category II Cougars ($378 million).[/*]
On 14 March 2008, the U.S. military
placed its first orders of 2008. 1,024 Category II Caiman's were ordered
from BAE (worth $481.8 million), 743 Category I MaxxPros were ordered from
Navistar ($410.7 million), and special command vehicles and ambulances
were ordered from BAE ($234 million).[/*]
On 17 July 2007, the U.S. Marine
Corps System Command placed an order with General Dynamics Land Systems
Canada for 773 RG31 Category I MRAPs ($552M) for delivery by April 2009.[/*]
On 2 January 2008, Navistar Defense
produced the 1,000th International MaxxPro Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected
Oshkosh Corp., Oshkosh,
Wisconsin, is being awarded a $1,064,463,100 firm-fixed-priced delivery order
under previously awarded firm-fixed-price contract W56HZV-09-D-0111 to exercise
an option for 1,700 Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) All Terrain
Vehicles. The Navy contract value is $1,064,463,100. A similar Army contract
for 1,700 Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) All-Terrain Vehicles is valued
at a further $1,063,700,000. By 2009 the US Department of Defence had spent
$20 billion on the MRAP program. Total MRAP program expenditure when final
deliveries are accepted is expected to cost $48.5 billion (FY10-11).
 Parallel programs
Orders of vehicles associated
with the MRAP program:
On 19 June 2007 the U.S. Army ordered
an additional 44 BAE RG-31 Mk
5 vehicles and an
additional 369 M1117
serviceman alongside his MRAP Cougar, Ramadi, Iraq in 2008
The MRAP class is separated into
three categories according to weight and size.
 Category I (MRAP-MRUV)
The Mine-Resistant Utility
Vehicle (MRUV) is smaller and lighter, designed for urban operations.
MaxxPro Category 1 MRAP
Category 1 MRAP vehicles ordered
or currently in service:
BAE Caiman 4x4 - 2,800 ordered.[/*]
BAE OMC RG-31[/*]
BAE RG-33 4x4[/*]
Force Protection Cougar
H 4x4 - 1,560
MaxxPro - 5,250
Textron M1117 Guardian - Removed from competition. As of
May 18, 2007, has been notified by the USMC that they will not be
receiving any additional orders as part of the MRAP program.[/*]
Protected Vehicles Inc./Oshkosh Truck
Alpha - Although 100 vehicles were initially ordered, Oshkosh was notified
by the Marine Corps on June 29, 2007 that it would receive no further
orders for the PVI Alpha due to "concern regarding overall vehicle
survivability" and other fundamental design deficiencies of an
automotive and ergonomic
nature, adding that remediation "would require significant
 Category II (MRAP-JERRV)
The Joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Rapid
Response Vehicle (JERRV)
is designed for missions including convoy lead, troop transport, ambulance, explosive ordnance disposal and combat engineering.
Category II MRAP vehicles ordered
or currently in service:
Force Protection Cougar
HE 6x6 - 950
BAE RG-33L 6x6[/*]
GDLS RG-31E - 600 vehicles ordered.[/*]
Thales Australia Bushmaster IMV - Has been removed from the
competition as of 2007-08-07. According to a Thales press release,
"The Thales Bushmaster vehicle offer for the US MRAP Phase 1 Program
was not selected due to an evolving requirement, not due to a lack of
marketing or lobbying effort…. Thales and Oshkosh remain confident of
future potential sales of Bushmaster under ongoing Phases of MRAP in the
Protected Vehicles Inc Golan - 60 vehicles initially ordered,
then when the Golan was eliminated from the competition all vehicles were
discarded by the Marines.[/*]
XL - 16 vehicles
BAE Caiman 6x6 - 16 vehicles ordered.[/*]
 Category III
Force Protection Buffalo MRV[/*]
Dedicated mine- and IED-clearing
Seating to carry six personnel.[/*]
The deployment of MRAP vehicles
has not been without criticism. The most common are concerns about the high cost
($17.6 billion program), potential logistical difficulties due to high fuel
consumption and varied designs, a greater disconnection between troops and the
local population due to their massive size and menacing appearance (conflicting
with current counter-insurgency
(COIN) strategy), and
what U.S. military will do with them following a U.S. withdrawal from the
current conflict in Iraq since they are expensive to transport and operate
(some speculate they may be sold or donated to Iraq, or put in storage in
America.) MRAP funding has pulled money away from other
tactical vehicle programs, most noticeably the Humvee replacement,
the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, which has been delayed by two years.
According to Army Times, some troops openly wonder about the design of
some versions of the MRAP. Some examples are: why the rear seats face inward
and not outward in such a way they could fire their weapons through ports,
which some versions lack. The height and steepness of the dropdown stairs at
the rear of the some versions can make exiting the vehicle dangerous. Troops
riding in the rear can hit their head on the ceiling while bouncing around in
rough terrain. Medics told the Army Times that a soldier broke his neck
after bouncing his head on the overhead, and another is said to have seriously
damaged his skull after slamming into a protruding bolt in the overhead while
wearing a soft cover.
The MRAP has been well received
in the field, where US troops have expressed their fondness for the MRAP,
stating that they would prefer to be hit by an IED in an MRAP than a Humvee. 
 Rollovers and electric
A Caiman after
rolling into a ditch.
A June 13 report by the Marine
Corps Center for Lessons Learned indicated concerns about MRAP vehicles rolling
over in combat zones. The V-shaped hulls of the MRAP give it a higher center of gravity and the weight of the MRAP can cause the poorly
built or maintained roads in rural Iraq or Afghanistan to collapse. Of the 66
MRAP accidents between November 7, 2007, and June 8, 2008, almost 40 were due
to rollovers caused by bad roads, weak bridges, or driver error. In many of the
rollovers troops were injured, and in two separate incidents five soldiers have
been killed by rolling over into a canal and getting trapped under water. The
report said 75% of all rollovers occurred in rural areas often when the road is
above grade and a ditch or canal full of water is next to it. The same report
raised concerns associated with MRAP vehicles snagging on low-hanging
powerlines in Iraq or its antennas getting close enough to create an electric
arc, which may lead to electrocution of passengers. The person located in the
gunner's hatch is at the highest risk.
MRAP Cougar hit
by a large IED in Iraq, all crew survived
The MRAP may not be effective
against Explosively Formed Penetrators (EFP), which use an explosive charge to propel a
specially shaped metal plate at high velocity while simultaneously deforming it
into an armor-piercing projectile. Use of EFPs more than doubled in 2006 and is
expected to continue to increase.
 In 2007, 11 percent of all roadside bomb
fatalities were due to EFPs. However, the Marines estimate that the use of the
MRAP could reduce the casualties in Iraq due to IED attacks by as much as 80
percent. The alleged MRAP weakness is being
addressed by the next-generation MRAP II. As an interim solution, the military
is currently installing a variant of the Humvee's IED defeating Frag
Kit 6 armor, which adds
significant weight, as well as width to the already large and heavy vehicle. In July 2008 the U.S. Military reported
the number of EFP attacks had dropped by 70 percent.
On 19 January 2008 a 3rd Infantry Division US Army soldier operating as the exposed turret gunner, was killed in a Navistar MaxxPro MRAP
vehicle by an ANFO IED estimated at 600 lbs. It is unknown whether the gunner was
killed by the explosion or by the vehicle when it rolled over after the blast.
However, the vehicle’s v-hull was not compromised. The crew compartment also
appeared to be uncompromised in the attack, and the three other crew members
who were inside the vehicle survived; one with a shattered left foot, a broken
nose and several broken teeth; one with a fractured foot; and the third unhurt. Although this was reported as the first MRAP
combat death, later reports clarified that several soldiers had been killed by
IEDs in RG-31s and by EFPs in Buffalos before this incident.
ambush protected vehicles (MRAP) are offloaded from the Military Sealift
Command roll-on/roll-off ship USNS Pililaau (T-AKR 304) onto the pier.
Several criticisms of the MRAP
program have been its lack of a common design, which presents a wartime
logistical challenge, and the relatively low number of units which have been
delivered to Iraq and Afghanistan, despite large orders. However, some analysts see the diversity
of MRAP vehicles as an advantage. Other criticisms include the vehicle's weight and
size, which severely limit its mobility off main roads, in urban areas, and
over bridges. 72 percent of the world's bridges cannot
hold the MRAP. Its heft also restricts several of the
vehicles from being transported by C-130 cargo aircraft or the amphibious ships that carry
Marine equipment and supplies. Although three MRAP vehicles (or five Oshkosh
M-ATV's) will fit in a C-17 aircraft,
airlifting is extremely expensive, at $150,000 per vehicle, according to estimates
by the U.S. Transportation Command. In an effort to rush more vehicles to the
theater, the US Air Force contracted several Ukrainian Antonov An-124 heavy-cargo aircraft, which became a familiar
sight above cities such as Charleston,
South Carolina where some
MRAPs are produced. For comparison, sealifting costs around $13,000 per vehicle, but takes 3–4
weeks for the vehicle to arrive in theater. In December 2007, the Marine Corps reduced its
request from 3,700 vehicles to 2,300. The Army is also reassessing its MRAP
requirements in Iraq. In January 2010, 400 were flown in to
Afghanistan, increasing to 500 a month in February, but the goal of 1,000 a
month was delayed because of difficulty in distribution and training.
 MRAP II
A member of the U.S. Air Force stands in front of an MRAP in Southwest Asia.
mine-resistant, ambush-protected vehicles in Iraq
mine-resistant, ambush-protected vehicles in Iraq.
The Bull APC 
On July 31, 2007, the Marine
Corps Systems Command launched an MRAP II pre-solicitation, to develop a new
vehicle that offers a higher level of protection than the current MRAP
vehicles, particularly from advanced threats such as explosively formed penetrators. While the Frag Kit 6 was designed to meet the threat of EFPs,
the MRAP II competition's purpose was to find a vehicle that didn't need the
upgrade kit. The U.S. Army Research laboratory worked to ensure the
technologies used in Frag Kit 6 would be available to MRAP II designers.
In addition, the new solicitation
was designed to provide the Joint Program Management Office with a greater
flexibility to increase production capability and provide vehicles with
enhanced protection and performance to meet future near-term requirements. Full text of the solicitation can be found.
The initial testing at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds served to disqualify vehicles that didn’t meet requirements. Competitors
who did not receive MRAP-II orders include Force
Dynamics (reinforced Cougar), GDLS Canada (upgraded BAE OMC RG-31), Navistar subsidiary IMG (upgraded MaxxPro), Textron's upgraded M1117, and Protected Vehicles, Inc. (upgraded Golan vehicle, with improved side doors and
different armor; arrived on last day). Blackwater USA (Grizzly APC with Ares EXO Scale appliqué
armor) was later
disqualified due to a limited amount of armor in the frontal area of the
There were two eventual winners
of the competition. The first was an upgraded Caiman, originally designed by Armor Holdings which was
later acquired by BAE Systems. The second winner was the Bull, a combined effort between Ideal Innovations Inc,
Ceradyne and Oshkosh. Both of the winning designs weighed
40,000 lbs or more.
According to the Army Times, the
Pentagon has already decided to buy first-generation 14- to 24-ton MRAP I
vehicles with extra Frag Kit 6-derived armor, not the 30-ton MRAP II vehicles,
when it places its final MRAP orders. Orders are expected at the end of summer
in 2008 after a field commander's report on MRAP. The Army Times also reported the Pentagon
may also buy some shorter, lighter MRAPs in their final batch. A senior
Pentagon official told them that "the roads are caving in" under the
weight of MRAPs and "We want it to weigh less than it weighs now.”
 Plans to integrate
A RG-33 convy
with the Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) system installed.
There currently are plans to
integrate the Crows II remote weapon station, the Frag Kit 6 anti-EFP armor, and the Boomerang anti-sniper system on many MRAPs in combat.
 MRAP M-ATV
On 30 June 2009, the Department
of Defense announced that Oshkosh Defense had been awarded a production
contract for 2,244 MRAP All Terrain Vehicles (M-ATV) to address the immediate need for vehicles in
Afghanistan. In October 2009, the first M-ATV were shipped to Afghanistan.
With the end of the Iraq War and the drawdown of the War in Afghanistan,
there was some question as to what to do with MRAPs, as they were designed
specifically for asymmetric
warfare. The Army decided
they would keep them in some sort of service post-war. Of the approximately
20,000 MRAPs in service, 30% (6,000) will stay in brigade combat teams as troop
transports and route clearance vehicles, 10% (2,000) will be used for training,
and 60% (12,000) will go into storage. MRAPs are to be superseded by the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle when it enters service in 2016. It still may be used until 2022, when the
JLTV is in use in sufficient numbers.
On October 1, 2012, the Pentagon
officially closed the MRAP production line. As of that date, 27,740 MRAP
vehicles of all types had rolled off the assembly lines of seven manufacturers,
and 12,726 vehicles were still in the Afghanistan theater of operations. About
870 were sold to foreign militaries, with 700 on foreign order.
In September 2012, it was
reported that the Department of Homeland Security (through the U.S. Army Forces
Command) recently retrofitted 2,717 of these ‘Mine Resistant Protected’
vehicles for service on the streets of the United States.
 See also
^ [url=http://defense-update.com/newscast/1107/news/081107_mrap.htm]"First MRAP vehicles delivered to Iraq"[/url]. http://defense-update.com/newscast/1107/news/081107_mrap.htm.
Robert W (2009). Does the MRAP meet the U.S. Army's needs as the primary method of
protecting troops from the IED threat?
(Master of Military Art and Science thesis). US Army Command and General Staff
^ a b c Defense Tech: Frag Kit 6 to go on MRAPs
^ a b c d "MRAP Vehicle Order: 1,000 Cougars to be Turned Loose." Defense Industry Daily. 25 Apr 2007.
^ Marines Urge Caution on MRAP Fielding
^ Another Casualty of the Surge
^ a b Armored Vehicle Cut Threatens Industry
Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/graphics/ied-deaths/flash.htm?tabNum=tab1. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
^ a b Surge in vehicle orders calls for unconventional buying
^ The truck the Pentagon wants and the firm that makes it -
^ Military.com Article
^ Roadside bombs decline in Iraq - USATODAY.com
Lamothe (9). [url=http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/2011/05/marine-corps-ied-afghanistan-george-flynn-050911w/]"New weapons, war dogs eyed to fight IEDs"[/url].
Gannett Government Media Corporation. http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/2011/05/marine-corps-ied-afghanistan-george-flynn-050911w/. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
^ US Army: 17,000 MRAP Vehicles to Replace Hummers? Defense Industry Daily. 11 May 2007.
^ [url=http://www.baesystems.com/Newsroom/NewsReleases/autoGen_107631191035.html]"BAE Systems completes acquisition of Armor Holdings Inc."[/url]
(PDF) (Press release). BAE Systems plc. 2007-07-31. http://www.baesystems.com/Newsroom/NewsReleases/autoGen_107631191035.html. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
^ a b Borak,
Donna. [url=http://web.archive.org/web/20071111055805/http:/www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D8SBU09O0.htm]"Pentagon orders 2,400 armored vehicles"[/url].
Archived from the original on 2007-11-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20071111055805/http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D8SBU09O0.htm.
^ More Attacks, Mounting Casualties, Washington Post
Peter (2007-10-02). [url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2007-08-01-force-protection-mraps_N.htm]"The truck the Pentagon wants and the firm that makes it"[/url]. USA
Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2007-08-01-force-protection-mraps_N.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
^ a b Force Protection, Inc. - In the News
^ MRAP: Survivable Rides, Start Rolling
^ a b DefenseLink: Contracts for Thursday, May 31, 2007
^ a b USMC, Army Release Orders for more than 2500 Armored
^ "BAE's Diverse MRAP Orders." Defense Industry Daily. 13 Nov 2007.
^ "BAE's Diverse MRAP Orders." Defense Industry Daily. 13 Nov 2007.
^ a b c "[url=http://web.archive.org/web/20080205114628/http:/www.marines.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/0/392158BE6C6E5AE9852573170073B9C4?opendocument]"MRAP Orders Approach 5,000"[/url].
Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20080205114628/http://www.marines.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/0/392158BE6C6E5AE9852573170073B9C4?opendocument.." marines.mil July 13, 2007.
^ More MRAPs: Navistar’s MaxxPro Maintains the Pole
Position - Defense Industry Daily
^ General Dynamics News - August 8, 2007
^ General Dynamics Wins MRAP Orders of Its Own - Defense
^ "Cougar Armored Trucks to Stalk Mines on the Battlefield
(updated)." Defense Industry Daily.
12 Nov 2007.
^ USMC Releases New Orders for 2,288 MRAPs
^ TheStreet.com : Navistar Wins Big MRAP Order
^ [dead link]
^ General Dynamics to Supply 773 RG-31 MRAP Vehicles to
U.S. Defense Department
^ Militaryindustrialcomplex.com Defense Contracts Listing
^ Donnelly, Tom, Why Gates is wrong, Armed Forces Journal
^ Armor Holdings, Inc. Receives $518 Million MRAP Award
^ DefenseNews.com - U.S. Marines Order 1,170 MRAPs -
^ "MRAP Advance Purchase #2: Oshkosh, PVI & GD." Defense Industry Daily. 06 Mar 2007.
^ MRAP: Survivable Rides, Start Rolling
^ Cougar Armored Trucks to Stalk Mines on the Battlefield
(updated). Defense Industry Daily.
12 Nov 2007.
^ DefenseNews.com - U.S. Orders 1,200 MRAPs - 05/31/07
^ DefenseNews.com - DoD Orders 2,400 MRAPs from 3 Firms -
^ "Textron's M1117 Removed from MRAP Competition." Defense Industry Daily. 18 May 2007.
^ Pentagon rejects Oshkosh’s truck design
Rhode Island news
The Providence Journal
^ MRAP: Another One Bites the Dust? - Defense Industry
^ General Dynamics News - August 8, 2007
^ MRAP: Oshkosh Entries Stalled on 2 Fronts - Defense
^ MRAPs on the march - Jane's Land Forces News
^ U.S. Marine Corps Awards $8.5 Million Contract for
Category II Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicles to International
Military and Government, LLC.
^ Defense Tech: Corps Asks for MRAP Slowdown
Krepinevich and Dakota Wood. Of IEDs and MRAPs: Force Protection In Complex Irregular
^ InsideDefense.com NewsStand: The Insider
^ a b Mitchell,
Bryan; Andrew Scutro, Kris Osborn (July 3, 2008). "SF deaths come amid MRAP rollover concerns: Three soldiers drowned
after RG-31 rolled into canal in Afghanistan". http://www.armytimes.com/news/2008/07/marines_MRAP_070108w/.
^ The 2d Cavalry Assn News Center » A new age in troop
Brook, Tom (2007-12-16). [url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2007-12-16-MRAP_N.htm]"Long-term needs lessen, but vehicles still sought"[/url]. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2007-12-16-MRAP_N.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
^ Associated Press: Fatal MRAP accidents prompt warnings[dead link]
Robert (2007-01-22). [url=http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2007/01/22/ieds/index.html]"Surge of danger for U.S. troops"[/url]. Salon.com. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2007/01/22/ieds/index.html. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
Brook, Tom (2007-05-31). [url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2007-05-31-mrap-insurgents_N.htm]"MRAPs can't stop newest weapon"[/url]. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2007-05-31-mrap-insurgents_N.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
^ Weapons: Dealing With EFPs
^ [url=http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/files/2007-03-28_Biden_MRAP_Amendment_Speech.doc]"Biden MRAP Amendment Speech"[/url]
Jim (July 18, 2008). [url=http://www.armytimes.com/news/2008/07/gns_efp_071708/]"EFPs in Iraq drop 70 percent in 3 months"[/url].
Army Times. http://www.armytimes.com/news/2008/07/gns_efp_071708/.
^ a b TURNER,
KEVIN (2008-02-02). [url=http://jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/020208/met_242926844.shtml]"Army's new protective vehicle saved soldier's life in Iraq"[/url]. The
Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville.com). http://jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/020208/met_242926844.shtml.
Stephen (2008-01-22). [url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/22/world/middleeast/22vehicle.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ei=5088&en=147b65d317fbd6fe&ex=1358658000&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss]"Hopes for Vehicle Questioned After Iraq Blast"[/url]. The
New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/22/world/middleeast/22vehicle.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ei=5088&en=147b65d317fbd6fe&ex=1358658000&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
^ Tait, Paul
(2008-01-22). [url=http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL22400735]"US suffers first death in new armoured truck"[/url]. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL22400735.
^ Hopes for NY Times Reporting Questioned After MRAP Story
- Defense Industry Daily
^ Weekly Standard: MRAP Confusion
^ Diversity Adds Depth to MRAP
^ Armored Vehicle Cut Threatens Industry
^ Washington Pulse
^ a b http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htlog/20100322.aspx
^ USAF Hires Russian Jets
^ Army.com -
Sealift of MRAP vehicles begins
^ General: Army Will Need Fewer MRAPs
Brook, Tom (2007-12-19). [url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2007-12-19-mraps_N.htm]"Military sets sights on at least 15,000 MRAPs"[/url]. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2007-12-19-mraps_N.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
^ Ideal Innovations, Inc. - News Archive
^ USA Issues MRAP-II Solicitation - Defense Industry Daily
^ Marine Corps Systems Command Launches MRAP II
Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles
(MRAP) II Enhanced Vehicle Competitive
02-Aug-07 - FBO#2075
^ EFP Mines? Ceradyne & i3 Say “Bull!”
^ Pentagon may buy shorter, lighter MRAPs - Army News,
opinions, editorials, news from Iraq, photos, reports - Army Times
^ Army Refining Long Term MRAP Plan - Military.com, May 25, 2012
^ Pentagon shuts MRAP production line - DoDBuzz.com, October 1, 2012
 External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mine
Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles
Associated Press article
about MRAPs in Iraq (9 May 2008)[/*]
States Marine Corps article". Archived from the
original on 2006-02-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20060228180439/http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/0/E4885590CF8E34DB8525702A007DAB4F?opendocument.[/*]
Billions Needed for New
Blast Resistant vs Armored[/*]
MRAP - on Defense Update.com[/*]
Trucks/Plasan Sasa MRAP[/*]
Pentagon balked at pleas
from officers in field for safer vehicles (USA Today 7-16-07)[/*]
Troops receive their first MaxxPro
MRAPs in Iraq (video)[/*]
Study Faults Delay of
Armored Trucks for Iraq[/*]
Video of an MRAP vehicle rolling
over in Iraq. The edge of the road gave way on a hill.[/*]
Austrian Armored MRAP
Wheeled armored fighting vehicles[/*]
Wheeled armoured personnel carriers[/*]
Military engineering vehicles[/*]
Military vehicles 2000–2009[/*]
By: Spy Files
Tags: Armored Personnel Carriers, MRAP, DHS, Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected, martial law preparations, SHTF, economic collapse
Location: Washington, District of Columbia, United States (load item map)
Views: 10776 | Comments: 10 | Votes: 0 | Favorites: 1 | Shared: 51 | Updates: 0 | Times used in channels: 1
|Liveleak on Facebook|