Day 4 for the baby Juncos. Their voices are starting to get stronger and their feathers are becoming more defined. Both parents return to the nest every 10 minutes or so to bring them more bugs to eat. Click here for more information on them:
The Dark-eyed Junco, (Junco hyemalis), is the best-known species of the juncos. This bird is common across much of temperate North America and in summer ranges far into the Arctic.
During the breeding season, Dark-eyed Juncos use a variety of forested habitat, but prefer moist conifer or mixed forests with dense understory and forest openings. During the winter, they can be found in open woodlands and brushy areas including towns, gardens, and shrub-steppe habitat.
Dark-eyed Juncos are flocking birds with a distinct social hierarchy. They forage on the ground in these groups, scratching with their feet to find food. The flash of white tail feathers serve as a signal that alerts members of the flock when one is alarmed.
During the summer, about half of the Dark-eyed Junco's diet is made up of insects and other arthropods, the other half consists of seeds. The young eat mostly arthropods. In winter, the diet shifts more to seeds and berries.
The male Dark-eyed Junco sings from a high perch to defend his territory and attract a mate. During courtship, both members of a pair hop about on the ground with their wings drooped and their tails spread, showing off their white outer tail feathers. The nest, which the female builds, is almost always on the ground. It is often in a depression, hidden under grass, a log, a rock, or an upturned tree root. The nest is a cup made of grass, moss, lichen, rootlets, twigs, and bark fiber, and is lined with fine grass, hair, or feathers. The female incubates 3 to 5 eggs for 11 to 13 days. Both parents feed the chicks, which leave the nest at 9 to 11 days. Pairs typically raise 1 or 2 broods per year.
Most Dark-eyed Juncos are migratory, following the food supply south, but many will winter over, given an adequate food supply. Males winter farther north than females.
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