7 November 2004 – 23 December 2004The Second Battle of Fallujah (code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic, "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury - was a joint U.S., Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S. Marine Corps against the Iraqi insurgency stronghold in the city of Fallujah and was authorized by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Interim Government. The U.S. military called it "some of the heaviest urban combat U.S. Marines have been involved in since the Battle of Huế City in 1968"
U.S., Iraqi, and British forces totaled about 13,000. The U.S. had gathered some 6,500 Marines and 1,500 Army soldiers that would take part in the assault with about 2,500 Navy personnel in support roles.
By the time of the attack on Fallujah in November 2004, the number of Insurgents in the city was estimated at around 3,000 to 4,000.
Meanwhile, most of Fallujah’s civilian population fled the city, which greatly reduced the potential for noncombatant casualties.] U.S. military officials estimated that 70–90% of the 300,000 civilians in the city fled before the attack.
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