Mohammed Akbar Khan (1813-1842) was an Afghan general. He was active in the First Anglo-Afghan War, which lasted from 1839-1842. He is prominent for his siege of Kabul from 1841-1842, and of Gandomak near Jalalabad in 1842.
Akbar was the son of Dost Mohammed Khan, and he led a revolt in Kabul against the British mission of William McNaughten, Alexander 'Sekundar' Burnes and their garrison of 4,500 men. In November of 1841, he murdered the two British agents and besieged Major-General William Elphinstone's force in Kabul. Elphinstone accepted a safe-conduct for his force and about 12,000 associated refugees to flee to India; they were ambushed and massacred.
Historians think it unlikely that Akhbar Khan wished for the total annihilation of the British force. An astute man politically, he would have been aware that allowing the British to extricate themselves from Afghanistan would give him the time to consolidate his control of the diverse hill tribes; whereas, a massacre of 14000 people of which only about a quarter were a fighting force, would not be tolerated back in London and would result in another, larger army sent to exact retribution. This was in fact what happened the following year.
Many believe that Akhbar Khan was poisoned by his father, who feared his ambitions
The Taliban (Pashto) is a Sunni Muslim group that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their spiritual leader Mohammad Omar was removed from power by NATO forces with the help of several anti-Taliban Afghan groups including the Northern Alliance. Committed fundamentalist insurgents, often described as "Taliban" in the media, originating in the Frontier Tribal Areas of Pakistan, are currently engaged in a protracted guerrilla war and terrorist campaign against the current government of Afghanistan and allied NATO forces.
The word Taliban is from the Pashto
Since becoming a loanword in English, Taliban besides a plural noun referring to the group is also used as a singular noun referring to an individual. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as "an American Taliban" besides the more correct "an American Talib".
The Taliban initially had had enormous goodwill from Afghans weary of the corruption, brutality and incessant fighting of Mujahideen warlords. Two contrasting narratives of the beginnings of the Taliban are that the rape and murder of boys and girls from a family traveling to Kandahar or a similar outrage by Mujahideen bandits sparked Mullah Omar and his students to vow to rid Afghanistan of these criminals.The other is that the Pakistan-based truck shipping mafia known as the "Afghanistan Transit Trade" and their allies in the Pakistan government, trained, armed and financed the Taliban to clear the southern road across Afghanistan to the Central Asian Republics of extortionate bandit gangs.
The basis of the Taliban was provided when, in the early 1980s, the CIA and the ISI (Pakistan's Interservices Intelligence Agency) provided arms to any group resisting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and started the process of gathering radical Muslims from around the world to fight against the Soviets. Osama Bin Laden was one of the key players in organizing these U.S.-backed training camps for the Muslims. The U.S. poured funds and arms into Afghanistan and "by 1987, 65,000 tons of U.S.-made weapons and ammunition a year were entering the war".
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